IMPORTANT: Please sign in to update your subscription preferences and ensure you still receive communications from JCN

Sign in to your account



Topic Articles

133 result(s) for the key topic Continence were found:

Assessing continence issues during the Covid-19 pandemic
Current Covid restrictions have forced many healthcare professionals to embrace technology and work in very different ways. Indeed, the traditional telephone has allowed the Newcastle continence service to provide a service to patients referred with all types of urinary incontinence. But, is it even possible to assess someone’s continence and devise a treatment plan over the telephone?
August 2020 : Volume 34, Number 4
Digital rectal examination: why, who, how?
Rectal interventions are a fundamental part of nursing care across all settings aimed at establishing whether effective bowel emptying is taking place. Functional bowel disorders, including constipation, are common conditions affecting many of the general population and often go undetected by both patients, who perceive it as their normal, and healthcare professionals, who may not include a thorough bowel assessment at every clinical contact due to time restraints, lack of knowledge, or fear of intimate procedures causing harm or embarrassment. An inaccurate or complete lack of appropriate bowel assessment can increase risk of harm or ill health for many patients and therefore should be an intrinsic part of everyday clinical contact. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) recently reviewed its bowel care guidance (Fenton et al, 2019) to address some of the concerns around bowel assessment and management. With an ever changing workforce, multiple grades of registered and non-registered staff taking on additional tasks, it is prudent for all clinicians to review their current knowledge and practice to ensure that they are following the latest evidence-based guidance for safe and effective practice.
August 2020 : Volume 34, Number 4
Improving the lives of children/teenagers with continence challenges
It is estimated that one in 12 children and young people in the UK suffer with a wetting or soiling problem, which can have a devastating impact on their family life, social life and self-esteem (NHS Modernisation Agency, 2003). Afraid of wetting themselves in class or on a school trip; too many children and teenagers are missing out on sleepovers and camping trips, being bullied and constantly trying to hide the signs of their ‘secret’.
August 2020 : Volume 34, Number 4
Trial without catheter: what is best practice?
Indwelling urinary catheters are still one of the most commonly used invasive devices in health care, with recognised significant risk factors, including catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI) and sepsis. Timely and successful removal of the catheter often falls to the responsibility of community nurses. There has been much debate about the optimum timing and circumstances for a successful trial without catheter (TWOC). This article looks at best practice guidelines and relevant clinical evidence to support healthcare professionals in making choices around TWOC procedures.
April 2020 : Volume 34, Number 2
Indwelling urinary catheterisation: evidence-based practice
Indwelling urinary catheters remain one of the most commonly used clinically invasive devices across the NHS and social care in the UK. The problems associated with the prolonged use of catheters are widely referenced. Healthcare-acquired infections (HCAIs) currently result in 5,000 preventable deaths a year, with 20% of all HCAIs associated with the urinary tract. Many staff have learned catheterisation techniques in their early careers, with no need for a formal review of skills and knowledge. This has perhaps contributed to some historical and now outdated tasks still being performed. The evidence for best practice when managing indwelling catheters is reflected in national and international guidelines, which have recently undergone a complete overhaul. This article explores common practices and best practice evidence to assist with safe and effective management of these essential but often risky devices.
October 2019 : Volume 33, Number 5
Ketamine bladders: what community nurses should know
The effect of drugs on mental and physical health are well documented. However, these consequences do not necessarily prevent people using them either recreationally or more regularly, with some becoming addicted to their drug or drugs of choice. It is estimated that in 2016/17, around one in 12 (8.5%) adults aged 16 to 59 in England and Wales had taken an illicit drug in the last year (NHS Digital, 2018). Ketamine has become increasingly popular, especially among younger users, as it is cheap and mistakenly seen as a ‘safe’, non-addictive drug. However, the reality is that even recreational use may have serious consequences. The effect on the urinary system can be devastating, with users experiencing anything from frequency and cystitis-like symptoms, to extreme debilitating pain from the inflamed and shrunken bladder, resulting in cystectomy and urinary diversion, and, if the kidneys are affected, renal failure and dialysis.
October 2019 : Volume 33, Number 5
Basic continence assessment: what community nurses should know
June 2019 : Volume 33, Number 3
Catheter valves: retraining the bladder to avoid prolonged catheter use
June 2019 : Volume 33, Number 3
Effective assessment and management of nocturia in the older person
Nocturia is a common lower urinary tract symptom that mainly affects older people. Nocturia causes excess urination at night and, because of associated night-time rising, can also result in falls and fractures. Nocturia has a range of presentations, therefore it is vital that nurses understand how to assess the condition accurately to provide appropriate treatment. This article examines the effective assessment of nocturia, as well as detailing the various lifestyle treatment options that can be used, such as a targeted reduction of fluid intake, weight loss and altered medication profiles. Medication and surgical options should only be used following a trial of lifestyle interventions.
April 2019 : Volume 33, Number 2
Reducing the incidence of inappropriate indwelling urinary catheterisation
There are a variety of reasons as to why a patient may require an indwelling catheter, however, these are seldom documented or communicated across healthcare services (Codd, 2013). Thus, short term catheters are at risk of becoming long-term catheters in the absence of clear documentation and forward planning. The risk of infection increases the longer a urinary catheter remains in situ. This article explores the guidance available to support appropriate urinary catheter use, catheter management, documentation, forward planning and patient education for effective catheter care. How this can be implemented to support appropriate removal of urinary catheters or ongoing care for long-term urinary catheter use for patients across the primary and secondary care services is also discussed.
June 2018 : Volume 32, Number 3
Pelvic floor exercises for treating stress urinary incontinence
Here, Sharon Holroyd, lead CNS, Calderdale Bladder and Bowel Service; chairperson, Yorkshire ACA, defines stress urinary incontinence and the treatment options available, and reviews the evidence to support pelvic floor exercises as an effective rehabilitation for patients with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence.
April 2018 : Volume 32, Number 2
Respiratory conditions and urinary incontinence
Urinary incontinence (UI) has been associated with chronic respiratory symptoms, which impact on patient quality of life (da Silva Paes et al, 2016). Chronic respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnoea, and patients with chronic chest conditions, such as asthma, bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are associated with increased occurrence of UI. Women with respiratory symptoms have more severe symptoms and are more likely to have stress urinary leakage than those without. This paper provides an overview of asthma, and highlights the importance of community nurses not only addressing issues associated with respiratory diseases, such as ensuring that there is a personalised asthma action plan (PAAP) in place for those with asthma, but also assessing urinary incontinence to evaluate occurrence and decide upon measures that can be taken to prevent or lessen any leakage
February 2018 : Volume 32, Number 1
Treatment interventions for bowel dysfunction: constipation - part two
This two-part article aims to help healthcare professionals understand constipation; the possible causes, and the anatomical and functional problems. In the first part, the author explained anatomy and physiology of the lower gastrointestinal tract, what are normal bowel motions, frequency and variation, which includes the Bristol Stool Chart to view the types of bowel motions sufferers may often experience. Here, the focus is on conservative treatment interventions for constipation, exploring the four ‘Fs’ acronym (Rex, 2013): fibre (in diet); fluids (those best for health reasons); fitness (‘if you do not move, it will not move’); and finally feet, which relates to the best sitting position to help achieve bowel evacuation successfully.
December 2017 : Volume 31, Number 6
Treatment interventions for bowel dysfunction: constipation
Bowel dysfunction is a common problem for adults and children, and yet many people do not seek help and when they do it is not up to standard. Unmanaged symptoms impact on the health of the patient, both physically and mentally, and add extra cost to the NHS. This article, by a clinical nurse specialist working with people suffering from bladder and bowl dysfunctions, will help healthcare professionals understand the possible causes of anatomical and functional bowel problems, especially constipation, and the conservative treatment interventions. This first article in a two-part series, explains anatomy and physiology of the lower gastrointestinal tract, what constitutes a normal bowel habit, frequency and variation. The second will focus on the causes of constipation, which are often misunderstood and misdiagnosed, and how they can be assessed and managed, as well as treatment options available.
November 2017 : Volume 31, Number 5
Understanding long-term catheterisation for effective bladder drainage
Patients in the community often have a long-term catheter in place and so their management inevitably becomes the responsibility of community nurses. As urinary incontinence can cause patients discomfort and have a negative impact on their day-to-day life, it is important that healthcare professionals understand the reasons for catheterisation and are aware of the different treatment options available, such as urethral and suprapubic, in order to provide patients with the most suitable device according to their needs and lifestyle. This paper explores the issues involved with indwelling catheterisation and looks at one new product range that aims to promote patient comfort and reduce associated risks.
November 2017 : Volume 31, Number 5
Managing multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction: part two
Continence is an area that requires many community nurses to prescribe from the Nurse Practitioner’s Formulary to promote good patient care and appropriate service delivery. Recently in West Berkshire, with the full support of GPs, the continence advisory service has taken over the non-medical prescribing of all continence products, with the aim of providing a safe, cost-effective and timely service. This initiative is aimed at changing the way continence prescriptions are issued to patients. This second article of a two-part series, as well as featuring a case report looking at the management of a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and bladder dysfunction, looks at the importance of holistic assessment to ensure appropriate catheter provision in line with prescribing principles.
August 2017 : Volume 31, Number 4
Managing multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction: part one
Continence is an area that requires many community nurses to prescribe from the Nurse Practitioner’s Formulary to promote good patient care and appropriate service delivery. Recently in west Berkshire, with the full support of GPs, the continence advisory service has taken over the non-medical prescribing of all continence products, with the aim of providing a safe, cost-effective and timely service. This initiative is aimed at changing the way continence prescriptions are issued to patients. As well as examining the problems of bladder dysfunction in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), this first article of a two-part series, looks at the background to MS and bladder problems, as well as focusing on treatments such as clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC). The second part of the series will feature a case study looking at the management of a patient with MS and bladder dysfunction.
June 2017 : Volume 31, Number 3
A new solution for indwelling catheter encrustation and blockage
With over a million devices used in the NHS every year, indwelling urinary catheterisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most commonly used invasive healthcare procedures. Despite its widespread use, there is also extensive evidence of the risk of infection, blockage and bypassing associated with indwelling catheters, all of which can adversely affect patients’ health and quality of life, as well as placing a significant burden on the supportive health services that manage the caseloads of catheterised patients in both community and acute settings. This article looks at the reasons for the use of long-term catheters, the complications that can arise and the positive impact the use of a triclosan-based solution can have when instilled into the inflation balloon of the catheter. A selection of case studies highlight the use of Farco-fill® Protect (CliniMed) in complex patients whose only management option for effective bladder drainage is to use an indwelling catheter.
February 2017 : Volume 31, Issue 1
Assessing patients with urinary incontinence: the basics
Urinary incontinence is a common problem in the UK, and one often seen by community nurses. While it is often associated with ageing, urinary incontinence can in fact have a number of causes and it is important that the community nurse is aware of the full range of aetiologies and presentations. Community nurses should have a good basic understanding of the causes of incontinence, be able to provide a basic first assessment, become adept at asking the right questions and be able to offer some conventional treatment and problem-solving strategies for immediate relief of symptoms. Most importantly, they should be able to identify when a patient will need referring to a specialist practitioner for more extensive assessment and investigation. This article looks at the assessment of urinary continence in the community, and outlines the common presentations that nurses should look out for.
February 2017 : Volume 31, Issue 1
Supporting patients with a colostomy
The Colostomy Association is a national charity that provides support, reassurance and practical advice to anyone in the UK who has, or is about to have, a colostomy. We are here to help and support patients, their families and carers. Our helpline is manned 24 hours a day by volunteers who all have a stoma. Our wide range of leaflets, quarterly magazine Tidings and closed Facebook group offer information and support to anyone affected by life-changing stoma surgery.
December 2016 : Volume 30, Issue 6
Common incontinence problems seen by community nurses
Incontinence is associated with other medical conditions and has a variety of social and physiological consequences — from the person who has had a stroke and who needs to urgently empty their bladder; to someone with dementia who has lost the ’skills’ of continence. Community nurses who are able to manage people’s continence needs can help to restore patient’s dignity and improve quality of life, as well as preventing wastage and saving limited NHS resources (All Party Parliamentary Group for Continence Care [APPG], 2011). Knowing what constitutes ‘good’ continence services will also help patients and carers understand the services on offer, as well as making it easier for nurses to deliver standard outcomes. This article looks at recent guidelines that outline measurable continence services for adults, children and young people (APPG, 2011).
August 2016 : Volume 30, Issue 4
Dealing with patients with concurrent dementia and urinary incontinence
The management of incontinence is often a neglected area of community care, even more so when allied to older people, and it is essential that community nurses consider the effect of the ageing process and its impact on continence. Often, this can involve the specific effects of dementia and the management of urinary incontinence can then become complex due to the range of practical approaches required and the need to adjust these for each patient. A large percentage of the community nurse’s time is spent supporting carers; therefore, it is essential to consider their feelings when suggesting any strategies as they may feel that they are already incorporating them in the patient’s daily activities. It is also important to focus on few key elements of advice around incontinence and to listen empathetically to appreciate the challenges experienced by carers, which will help in identifying suitable strategies.
June 2016 : Volume 30, Issue 3
An hour-a-day project aimed at streamlining continence services
It is widely recognised that the NHS is facing unprecedented challenges in trying to improve the quality of services provided, while managing the most severe and protracted period of resource constraint in its history (NHS Confederation, 2014; Today’s NHS, 2015). The hour-a-day project was specifically designed by the author’s trust as an efficiency initiative, with the aim of saving an hour a day for each team member, releasing half that time as cashable savings, with the other half retained for the benefit of patient care. Saving time across 4,175 trust employees offered considerable scope for achieving efficiencies and reducing costs. 
April 2016 : Volume 30, Issue 2
Managing the aftercare of patients with a Mitrofanoff pouch
The Mitrofanoff technique uses the appendix to create a continent ‘tunnel’ between the skin’s surface and the bladder, which is then drained using a catheter, which is inserted along the tunnel rather than via the urethra. This is a complex procedure that needs the patient to be motivated and committed to living with such lifechanging surgery. Intense preparation and long-term support from a urinary diversion nurse specialist as well as any involved community nurses is vital. Long term follow-up is vital to ensure continued good health and to anticipate any problems such as infection, stone formation or renal damage. Having access to community healthcare professionals who know about the possible dangers and can offer advice and support is also key to ensure any complications are dealt with swiftly and safely.
February 2016 : Volume 30, Issue 1
Identifying urinary incontinence in community patients
Urinary incontinence impacts on patients both physically and mentally, restricting employment, educational and leisure opportunities, and leading to social embarrassment and isolation. It is vital that people who are experiencing continence problems are given every opportunity to regain their continence and highquality comprehensive continence services are an essential part identify patients who may be experiencing continence problems, before going on to look at treatments and longer-term care. The author also addresses the issue of when community nurses should look to deal with continence problems themselves, or when they
December 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 6
How can community nurses manage chronic constipation?
Constipation is a widespread problem although its subjective nature can mean that diagnosis and treatment can be difficult as there is often a mismatch between patients’ and clinicians’ view of the condition. Constipation is widely believed to include unsatisfactory defecation, infrequent stools and/or difficult stool passage. Thorough patient assessment and promotion of continence issues are imperative to improving services for people with constipation. This article highlights how breaking social taboos around bladder and bowel issues, helping people to acknowledge bowel issues, and referring them to the appropriate specialist nurse-led services will all help to provide a more accurate and timely diagnosis of constipation.
October 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 5
Troubleshooting indwelling catheter problems in the community
Patients in the community may often have a long-term urinary catheter in place. The management of this usually falls to thecommunity nurse therefore he or she needs to understand the basic procedures involved in urethral and suprapubic catheterisation, as well as being familiar with potential complications and how to troubleshoot. Catheter blockages are the most common problem encountered in long-term catheterisation and it is important that the nurse knows how to address this methodically and identify and treat the cause. This article offers practical and evidence-based advice on some of the common issues that can arise in the management of people who have long-term catheters in place
August 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 4
Redesigning continence services: rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness
The number of NHS patients requiring containment products such as pads is increasing year on year due to an ageing population. Patients with long-term conditions are increasingly being cared for at home, and although incontinence is not a disease it is often a symptom associated with other health issues. Community nurses are seeing patients with more complex needs, but incontinence is often not the primary reason for their visit. Containment products can be seen — both by patients and their carers — as the most effective way to manage incontinence and nurses are often put under pressure to prescribe pads, while continence services are being challenged to review the way care is delivered through innovation and the effective use of technology. This article will look at the redesign of a continence service that has involved the development of a community continence team (CCT), along with a summary of the initially encouraging performance indicators. The CCT aims to provide a comprehensive continence assessment with a focus on rehabilitation. The principles underpinning this service redesign could be applied to any community nursing team.
June 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 3
What can we do to improve the patient experience of continence care?
Incontinence can affect people of all ages and genders and can have devastating psychological, social and financial implications for the individual and his or her family. Many people may fail to seek help with incontinence for years due to embarrassment and stigma, which in turn can lead to social isolation. The prevalence of bladder and bowel incontinence is increasing worldwide, in part due to an ageing population — more people are being looked after in residential and nursing homes than ever before and admissions to acute care due to incontinence-associated conditions have increased. All of these factors increase the burden of care on health and social care staff, potentially leading to a lack of quality services. Dignity is internationally accepted as a fundamental human right, yet a host of public inquiries (such as the Francis Report [2013] in the UK) repeatedly raise the issue of failure to respect patient’s dignity, particularly in relation to continence care. This article explores why continence care causes such complicated issues and how community nurses can help to ensure it is seen as an essential element of care, rather than being dismissed as only requiring basic skills.
May 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 2
Testing for urinary tract infection in non-catheterised patients
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the commonest infections seen in primary and secondary care and consequently are often treated with antibiotics. However, recently there has been an increasing amount of evidence highlighting the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat UTI. This makes diagnosis and treatment even more critical. Diagnosis of a UTI can be difficult, especially in elderly patients, and poses many challenges for nurses, including those working in the community, particularly in nursing and residential homes. This article examines the adoption of a chemical indicator dipstick test. This demonstrated good correlation with urine culture results and was seen as a useful additional tool to assist in the diagnosis of UTI, especially in those patients where urine samples may be more difficult to capture.
February 2015 : Volume 29, Issue 1
Managing urinary incontinence: guidelines for community nurses
Increasing demographic changes in the type and age of patients as well as further government directives requiring more care at home, mean that there is a growing emphasis on primary care-led services. Large caseloads and patients with multiple and chronic health problems are stretching available community nursing resources. Against this background, continence promotion tends not to be a priority and at times it may seem easier and better to prescribe pads for patients with urinary incontinence. This article provides community nurses with guidance on the initial assessment and management options available for patients who present with urinary incontinence. Many patients will subsequently experience improvement in their symptoms (although not always complete resolution), with a corresponding improvement in overall quality of life.
December 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 6
A new leg bag range for children with indwelling catheters
Continence problems in children can be very disabling for both the child and their families/carers. The need to have an indwelling catheter can be inconvenient and, even, traumatising for the child. There is also a social stigma associated with incontinence, continence care and catheters, which should not be underestimated. This article discusses how healthcare professionals can help children and families and thereby reduce the burden, both emotional and physical, of living with a catheter and then introduces a new range of leg bags that have been designed specifically with children in mind.
October 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 5
Principles underlying urinary catheterisation in the community
This article examines the various elements that community nurses need to consider when attempting to provide best practice in urinary catheterisation. The author seeks to challenge what is considered best practice — particularly the requirement for all practice to be evidence based — while encouraging community nurses to think proactively about the care they are providing. The article stresses that the first principle of urinary catheterisation is to avoid the procedure where at all possible — catheterisation is potentially dangerous and can even be life-threatening if performed inappropriately. Overall, the author poses some key questions, including: should there be a difference in the care provided by community and hospital nurses; do community patients have the same needs as those in hospital; and can the manufacturers of drugs/products help to make avoiding urinary tract infections (UTIs) easier?
October 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 5
Introducing a pelvic floor telephone assessment service
This article looks at a telephone triage assessment clinic that was set up to improve the bowel, bladder and pelvic floor service in the authors’ locality. A pelvic floor triage questionnaire was developed to identify patients’ faecal, urinary and prolapse symptoms then, between April and December 2013, patients were referred to the colorectal pelvic floor clinic via telephone triage assessment. Investigations could also be requested directly from the telephone triage assessment clinic. The need for any investigations and patient responses to the telephone triage assessment clinic questionnaires were reviewed in the pelvic floor multidisciplinary meeting. Previously, the wait for a new pelvic floor appointment was four months and this has been reduced to two weeks (or five weeks for a new consultant appointment). The telephone triage assessment clinic has led to a reduction in waiting times, an improvement in patient experience and more efficient referral. It is also more cost effective as
it can replace a new consultant appointment.
August 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 4
Management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the community
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is caused by the presence and multiplication of bacteria in the urinary tract, with associated tissue invasion. It is most common in women but can be more complicated in male and catheterised patients. This article highlights the importance of the correct diagnosis of UTI, which will identify ‘red flags’ to aid community nurses’ choice of management options and avoid the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. In addition, the author makes recommendations for reducing catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) in the community.
June 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 3
Reducing the risk of infection in indwelling catheterisation
Caring for patients with indwelling catheters is common in nursing practice in all settings (Foxley, 2011), despite being the last resort for patients with long-term bladder control problems. Community nurses in particular will regularly encounter patients with indwelling catheters, ranging from those with nerve damage such as spina bifida, multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke or spinal injury; those with debilitating or terminal illness with loss of mobility; to those who may lack the cognitive ability or sufficient awareness to use the toilet. Catheterisation carries a high risk of infection, resulting in an increased burden of care and cost to healthcare providers. It can also negatively impact on patient wellbeing. Providing for these patients 'around the clock' can be a particular problem in the community, with carers and patients requiring education in how to manage both the catheters themselves, as well as the accompanying equipment at night. This article provides a background to long-term catheterisation, before looking at ways of preventing infection as well as the techniques and equipment that can better enable 24-hour care.
June 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 3
A versatile range of leg bags for use in community patients
It has been estimated that around 4% of patients on community caseloads have long-term indwelling catheters (Pomfret, 2000). Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to be aware of the different closed drainage systems available, so that they can offer patients choices to suit their lifestyle and preferences. Leg bags are one option, which can be customised to maximise patient comfort and dignity. This paper discusses the impact that urinary incontinence can have on patient quality of life, and one range of leg bags that has been developed to meet patients’ specific needs.
April 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 2
Are our continence services fit for purpose?
Why does incontinence continue to lag behind many other key healthcare conditions, despite being a massive public health issue? There is a vast literature base that informs us that incontinence can affect men, women and children at any age, and that even slight incontinence can have a severe impact on quality of life for individuals and carers.
January 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 1
Supporting community patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with a significant impairment of quality of life. Due to the nature of its symptoms, the role of the nurse is central to the care of patients who may have IBS. The often embarrassing symptom profile means that patients may rely on nurses to provide psychological and physical support in helping them to improve their symptoms. In this article, the author discusses the management of patients with irritable IBS, including the optimal delivery of care for patients and the role of community nurses in dealing with this chronic condition.
January 2014 : Volume 28, Issue 1
Urinary incontinence and the importance of catheter fixation
Urinary incontinence affects quality of life in a large number of people of varying ages. For a significant number of patients the problem has to be addressed by catheterisation, a treatment method that can give rise to a host of potentially avoidable complications. Catheter stabilisation is an essential practice in avoiding unnecessary damage to the urethra and accompanying pain. While a number of products are available, there seems to be no preferred device for securing catheters. This article looks at CliniFix® (CliniMed, Buckinghamshire), a universal tube-securing device, which approaches tube fixation in a different way to strap-style-devices. 
November 2013 : Volume 27, Issue 5
Using an antimicrobial skin cleanser before catheterisation
Community nurses’ caseloads may include a large number of catheterised patients and catheter-related infection is a significant problem, with up to 90–100% of those who are catheterised long-term going on to develop a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). For community nurses, ensuring that their skin and that of the patient has been cleansed before any catheter-related intervention is paramount. This article looks at the use of a new antimicrobial cleansing solution (octenilin®; Schülke) and whether its properties reduced the infection risk associated with catheterisation in the community.
November 2013 : Volume 27, Issue 5
Inflammatory bowel disease - patient engagement and experience
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a collective name for a number of conditions such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). It produces uncontrolled, chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. IBD is characterised as a chronic illness that is punctuated by disease exacerbation and remission; patients require an individual, multidisciplinary/multimodal approach to care. There is currently no permanent cure for either CD or UC, therefore treatment strategies focus on good symptom control, modification of the disease process and improving quality of life.
May 2013 : Volume 27, Issue 3
Management of constipation in the community
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems experienced by the general population, with an estimated UK prevalence of 52 per cent. Despite this, constipation is often both misdiagnosed and under-treated both in children and adults. This paper will look at the issues and suggest specific management strategies for addressing constipation in both the general adult population and these apparently vulnerable groups.
March 2013 : Volume 27, Issue 2
Good practice in catheter care
Despite many advances in the treatment and management of bladder dysfunction, there are still some patients who require an indwelling urethral or supra-pubic catheter, or intermittent catheterisation to help maintain urinary continence. This article builds upon the principles of catheterisation presented by Booth and Clarke in the May/June 2012 issue of JCN, outlining fundamentals such as privacy, dignity, harm minimisation and the use of care bundles.
November 2012 : Volume 26, Issue 6
Continence product use: a review
The prevalence of incontinence is significant in care settings. However, care is often focussed on containing the problem rather than establishing and treating the underlying cause. In order to assess the appropriateness of product usage, and therefore give an indication of quality of continence care within our organisation, we undertook a review. This article, a previous entry in the JCN Writing Awards, describes the methodology and results and identified areas for practice improvement.
September 2012 : Volume 26, Issue 5
Principles of urinary catheterisation
Urinary catheterisation is one of the most common procedures undertaken in both primary and secondary care. However, the process carries a number of inherent risks, such as the potential for trauma and the introduction of infection. In addition, the inappropriate use of a catheter can cause long-term damage. This article outlines the indications for their use and the type to be used according to patient requirements.
May 2012 : Volume 26, Issue 3
Treating psoriasis in community practice
Psoriasis is a common, recurring inflammatory condition that affects the skin, scalp and joints. It can have a profound effect on an individual’s self-image, self-esteem, and sense of well-being and can negatively affect all aspects of life.
May 2012 : Volume 26, Issue 3
Choosing the correct stoma appliance
Pat Black discusses some of the modern stoma appliances available and offers a guide to choosing the correct appliance for the patient with a bowel or bladder stoma.
November 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 6
Constipation: review of management and treatment
In her second article Gaye Kyle discusses the management and treatment of constipation and the need to develop a proactive approach.
November 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 6
Managing chronic constipation
In the first of two articles Gaye Kyle reviews the definitions of constipation, epidemiology, causes of constipation, symptoms and assessment.
September 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 5
Stoma management and palliative care
Barbara Borwell discusses how an individual’s ability to deal with the practical features of stoma care will differ, therefore, requiring unpredictable levels of intervention. This article focuses on the principles of stoma care acknowledging the importance of factors, which can enhance the quality of life
July 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 4
Continence product use in the community
Ian Pomfret, June Rogers & Julie Vickerman discuss the various uses of continence aids available in the community
May 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 3
Stoma formation
Jennie Burch discusses stomas and the reasons for their formation.
May 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 3
Reducing the risk of traumatic hypospadias
Dr Guy Evans, Dr Shahid Kausar & Miss Yuko Smith discuss two case studies which look at how practitioners might reduce the risk of traumatic hypospadias in catheterised patients.
March 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 2
The patient journey: guiding practice in intermittent catheterisation
Karen Logan discusses the development of a guideline to deliver best quality care to patients learning and living with clean intermittent catheterisation
January 2011 : Volume 25, Issue 1
Catheter care: is it really improving?
Ian Pomfret discusses the findings from two recent reports looking at catheter safety
September 2010 : Volume 24, Issue 5
Stress incontinence
Patricia McDermott explores the health care professionals role in promoting conservative rehabilitative treatment strategies that may be effective in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence
May 2010 : Volume 24, Issue 3
Review of the factors influencing continence care
The winner of the 2009 JCN Excellence in Practice Awards - Patricia McDermott reviews the contextual factors of culture, attitudes, education and training that may influence proactive continence care
January 2010 : Volume 24, Issue 1
Faecal incontinence – exploring the ‘hidden problem’
Dr Karen Ousey & Dr Warren Gillibrand discuss the need for thorough assessment for individuals presenting with faecal incontinence.
December 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 12
Reducing encrustation & catheter blockage
Ian Pomfret, Lauren Tew & Sharon Eustice discuss the use of silver alloy catheters in the management of catheter encrustation and blockage and reducing catheter acquired urinary tract infections
October 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 10
Safe and secure – improving practice in the UK
Lynda Eastwood discusses the need for innovation in catheter care practice
May 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 5
Assessment and management of faecal incontinence
Alison Bardsley gives an overview of this distressing condition and how it can be managed in the community setting
April 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 4
Urinary catheterisation: the infection control aspects
In a previous article several issues surrounding urinary catheters and their care were raised. In this article, Debbie Wright and Ian Pomfret discuss these and other catheter-related issues from infection control and continence promotion viewpoints
March 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 3
Coated catheters – reviewing the literature
Alison Bardsley aims to provide a summary of the evidence available for the use of anti-infective coated or impregnated catheters.
February 2009 : Volume 23, Issue 2
A novel method of suprapubic catheter management
Ian Pomfret discusses a case study whereby, patient, carer and continence specialists have achieved a novel way of meeting a client's specific continence needs
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is a District Continence Adviser for Central Lancashire PCT. Article accepted for publication: June 2008
November 2008 : Volume 22, Issue 11
Managing stoma & skin related problems
Joanne Wright gives an overview of the management of stomas and skin related problems
Joanne Wright RGN, RM is a Practice Nurse and a Freelance Medical Writer, Brighouse, West Yorkshire
Article accepted for publication: June 2008
September 2008 : Volume 22, Issue 9
Indwelling urinary catheters: friend or foe?
Ian Pomfret introduces a new series of continence articles. In this first article, he discusses the pro’s and cons of indwelling catheterisation
Ian Pomfret SRN, DN Cert, PWT, District Continence Adviser, Central Lancashire PCT
Article accepted for publication: May 2008
July 2008 : Volume 22, Issue 7
Intermittent catheterisation
Ann Winder gives a guide to the appropriate use of intermittent catheterisation.
Ann Winder RGN, Head of Continence Services & Professional Lead – Specialist Adult Services, Hertfordshire
Article accepted for publication: January 2008
May 2008 : Volume 22, Issue 5
Skin care and incontinence
On behalf of members of the CCSG Ian Pomfret discusses the range of skin cleansing products available for incontinent patients
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is a Continence Advisor, Central Lancashire PCT
January 2008 : Volume 22, Issue 1
Promoting continence positively
Claire Hope gives an overview of the impact that urinary incontinence can have on a persons physical and
psychological health and social well being
Claire Hope RN, RM, PG Dip HCE, MSc is a Nurse Lecturer at St Bernards Hospital, Gibraltar
*Article accepted for publication August 2007
November 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 11
The effects of urinary and faecal incontinence on the skin
Joanne Whiteley gives an overview of the need for holistic assessment of incontinent patients' skin
Joanne Whiteley RGN, BSc is Continence Services Manager, Kirklees PCT
Article accepted for publication: July 2007
October 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 10
Care of a colostomy
Sylvie Hampton discusses some of the practical issues faced by ostomates and the management of skin and stoma
Sylvie Hampton MA, BSc (Hons.) DpSN, RGN is a Tissue Viability Consultant, Eastbourne.
Article accepted for publication: July 2007
September 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 9
Urinary catheter problems: 2
Ian Pomfret discusses the management of air in urinary catheter bags
Ian Pomfret RGN, DN, PWT is a Continence Adviser, Central Lancashire PCT
Article accepted for publication: April 2007
July 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 7
Male urinary incontinence - could penile sheaths be the answer?
Jennie Potter discusses the use of penile sheaths
Jennie Potter is Lead Nurse for Continence Care Fast Response Team, Selby & York Primary Care Trust (PCT)
Article accepted for publication: December 2006
May 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 5
Treating UTI in the primary care setting
Louise Lee reviews three research articles on the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in a primary care setting.
Louise Lee RGN, Cert MHSC, BSc (Hons) is a clinical nurse specialist in continence which provides a service across three PCTs.
Article accepted for publication: December 2006
January 2007 : Volume 21, Issue 1
Penile sheaths: a guide to selection and fitting
Ian Pomfret gives a guide to selecting and fitting penile sheaths.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT, is a District Continence Advisor, Chorley & South Ribble PCT.
Article accepted for publication: September 2006
November 2006 : Volume 20, Issue 11
Intermittent self catheterisation: a change in practice or just a series of developments?
Willie Doherty argues that intermittent self catheterisation should be acknowledged as the first option in treatment of bladder emptying dysfunction and management rather than initiating indwelling catheterisation as first line management.
Willie Doherty, RNLD, RGN, D/N Cert, ENB 978 is clinical nurse specialist at North Herts and Stevenage PCT.
Article accepted for publication: July 2006
September 2006 : Volume 20, Issue 9
Urinary catheter problems
Ian Pomfret & Mandy Wells describe some common catheter problems faced by district nurses and some not so common solutions.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble PCT.
Mandy Wells MSc, RN, RM, Nurse Consultant, Integrated Bladder and Bowel Care, Exeter PFT, East Devon PCT, Mid Devon PCT and the Royal Devon and Exeter Foundation NHS Trust.
Article accepted for publication: June 2006
July 2006 : Volume 20, Issue 7
Making sense of working together
Ian Pomfret, Clare Holden, Debbie King, Rebecca Molyneux, Linda Newsham, Lauren Tew and Julie Vickerman discuss an enterprise and what may be achieved when there is close collaboration between the key personnel responsible for providing both continence care and infection control (IC) services.
Ian Pomfret RGN, NDN Cert, PWT (District Continence Adviser)
Julie Vickerman Dip COT (Clinical Specialist, Continence Occupational Therapy)
Clare Holden BSc Hons Physiotherapy (Clinical Specialist, Continence Physiotherapy) are team members of the Continence Advisory Service, Chorley & South Ribble NHS Primary Care Trust.
Linda Newsham RGN, Dip N, MICS (Senior Nurse, Infection Control), Chorley & South Ribble NHS Primary Care Trust.
Rebecca Molyneux RGN, Cert Ed, BSc Hons, MHSc (Senior Nurse, Infection Control), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust).
Debbie King RN, BSc Hons (Lead Infection Control Nurse), Solihull NHS Primary Care Trust, Solihull, West Midlands
Lauren Tew RGN, BSc Hons, PG Dip, RNT (Infection Control Nurse and Clinical Consultant), Bard Ltd.
Article accepted for publication: January 2006
May 2006 : Volume 20, Issue 5
Stress urinary incontinence, whose problem is it?
Jeanette Haslam gives an overview of female stress urinary incontinence.
Jeanette Haslam, MPhil, Grad Dip Phys, MCSP, RP is an Independent Clinical Specialist in Women's Health, Senior visiting lecturer, University of Bradford.
Article accepted for publication: October 2005

Illustrations reproduced within this article are by kind permission of the Lilly/Boehringer Ingelheim alliance.
January 2006 : Volume 20, Issue 1
Questioning practice - the need for research in continence care
Ian Pomfret and Rona Mackenzie give an overview of the work of a continence forum in evaluating and researching the evidence base behind continence management.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is a District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble PCT.
Rona Mackenzie RGN, RM, NDN Cert, Cert Ed, BA (Hons) is a Clinical Nurse Specialist, Epping Forest PCT
Article accepted for publication: October 2005
November 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 11
Multiprofessional treatment of urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy
Ian Pomfret and Clare Holden give an overview of collaborative working in continence services.
Ian Pomfret RGN, NDNc, PWT
is District Continence Adviser, Chorley and South Ribble Primary Care Trust, Lancashire. Clare Holden BSc (Hons) Physiotherapy
is Clinical Specialist Continence Physiotherapist, Chorley and South Ribble Primary Care Trust, Lancashire. Article accepted for publication June 2005
September 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 9
An introduction to stomas
Lyn Kirkwood gives an overview of the anatomy of the digestive tract, the types of stomas created and the reasons for having a stoma.
Lyn Kirkwood, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Weston General Hospital, Weston-super-Mare. Article accepted for publication: February 2005
July 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 7
Relieving constipation
Fiona Wondergem discusses the need for community practitioners to provide evidence of effectiveness when managing constipation and advocates a stepped approach to care. Fiona Wondergem RGN, RSCN, BSc (Hons) is a Student Health Visitor, Leeds Metropolitan University, West Yorkshire. Article accepted for publication: February 2005
May 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 5
Improving continence care: searching the evidence
Deborah Flynn explores the evidence base of pelvic floor exercises (PFEs) for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence (SI) and discusses the implications of a national clinical guideline for continence services.
Deborah Flynn RGN, DN, BSc, Dip Prof Studies was District Nurse Team Leader at the time of writing. She is now Clinical Nurse Specialist for Continence & Lead Nurse for Continence for Funded Nursing Care/Complex Care, North Devon PCT. Article accepted for publication: January 2005
March 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 3
Benchmarking continence services
Ian Pomfret and Frank Booth discuss the benchmarking of continence services and describe the experiences of neighbouring primary care trusts Flyde Coast PCT and Chorley and South Ribble PCT
Ian Pomfret RGN, DN Cert, PWT, is District Continence Adviser, with Chorley and South Ribble PCT. Frank Booth RGN, DN Cert, is Head of Continence Services with Fylde PCT.
Article accepted for publication: July 2004
January 2005 : Volume 19, Issue 1
Constipation - a hard habit to break
December 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 12
Contracting within the NHS
Frank Booth gives an overview of contracting for continence services within the NHS
Frank Booth RGN, DN Cert is a District Continence Advisor/Continence Services Manager, Flyde PCT, Lancs
Article accepted for publication: February 2004
November 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 11
Urinary catheters and associated uti's
Ian Pomfret and Lauren Tew discuss the essential role of the nurse in the reduction of catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs)
Ian Pomfret RGN, NDN Cert, PWT is District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble PCT.
Lauren E Tew RN, BSc Hons, PGDip (HE), RNT is Infection Control Consultant, Bard Ltd. Article accepted for publication: July 2004
September 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 9
An agenda for action on continence
Frank Booth gives an overview of the state of continence provision and services in the UK
Frank Booth, RGN, DN Cert. is a District Continence Advisor/Continence Services Manager with the Fylde Primary Care Trust. Article accepted for publication: May 2004
July 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 7
Crisis management in catheter care
Ann Yates, RGN, BN (Hons), Dip Nurs, Fetc is Chairperson of the Association for Continence Advice Wales and Director for Continence Services for the Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust. Article accepted for publication: February 2003
May 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 5
Blocked indwelling urethral catheters: evaluating evidence based practice
Barbara Holtom reviews the literature and discusses if it is possible to plan individualised catheter changes for patients
Barbara Holtom RGN, DNCert, Dip Prof Studies (Nursing) is a Senior Community Night Sister. Article accepted for publication: October 2003
March 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 3
Advancing care and clinical practice
Deborah Flynn gives an overview of a project designed to increase people in care homes access to continence services
Deborah Flynn RGN, DN Cert, Dip Prof Studies. At the time of writing she was employed as a DN Team Leader, now working as a Clinical Nurse Specialist (Continence), North Devon PCT.
Article accepted for publication: May 2003
January 2004 : Volume 18, Issue 1
Back to Basics 1: Assessment of bowel dysfunction
In a two part back to basics article, Karen Irwin looks at the assessment and management of bowel dysfunction and gives an overview of common bowel problems.
Karen Irwin BA (Hons), RGN, DN, DiPNS is a Clinical Nurse Specialist - Bowel Dysfunction, Bolton Primary Care NHS Trust. Article accepted for publication: June 2003
November 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 11
Back to basics: urinary sheaths
Ian Pomfret gives a basic guide to using and choosing urinary sheaths.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is a District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble Primary Care Trust. Article accepted for publication: April 2003
October 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 10
An agenda for action on continence
Frank Booth gives an overview of the state of continence provision and services in the UK.
Frank Booth RGN, DN Cert, is a Continence Services Manager Windmill Mews, Blackpool.
Article accepted for publication: March 2003
September 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 9
A survey of continence nurse advisors working in one health region
Lynn Austin describes a research study which provided profile of clinical nurse specialists working in a primary care setting in a bid to enhance understanding of the role and work undertaken by continence advisors in one health region.Lynn Austin MSc, RGN, MRC Fellow, School of Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, University of Manchester.
Article accepted for publication: February 2003
August 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 8
Catheter removal and recatheterisation
John Robinson suggests several techniques to remove old catheters and recatheterise patients. John Robinson RGN, RMN, NDN (Cert), District Charge Nurse, Continence Advisory Service, Morecambe Bay Primary Care Trust NHS, Morecambe. Article accepted for publication: September 2002
May 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 5
Choosing a catheter
John Robinson runs through a few practical steps to consider when choosing a urinary catheter.
John Robinson RGN, RMN, NDN (Cert), is a District Charge Nurse, Continence Advisory Service, Morecambe Bay Primary Care Trust NHS, Morecambe, Lancs. Article accepted for publication: April 2002
March 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 3
Anaesthetic gel insertion during male catheterisation
Vivien Ogden describes a literature review and a pilot study of anaesthetic gel insertion in male recatheterisation.
Vivien Ogden RGN, Dip DN Community Nursing Studies is a District Nursing Sister, Grovelands Medical Centre, Reading, Berks.
Article accepted for publication: July 2002
January 2003 : Volume 17, Issue 1
Audit of community catheter care - a comparative study
Ian Pomfret, Ann Winder & Willie Doherty report on a twin centre study designed to test the accuracy of an audit of community catheter care.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT is a District Continence Advisor, Chorley & South Ribble Primary Care Trust. Ann Winder RGN is a Senior Clinical Nurse Specialist, North Hertfordshire & Stevenage Primary Care Trust. Willie Doherty NNLD, RGN is a Clinical Nurse Specialist, North Hertfordshire & Stevenage Primary Care Trust.
Article accepted for publication July 2002.
November 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 11
The prostate and its problems
Beverley Chiodo gives an overview of some of the more common causes of prostate problems and discusses some of the treatments available.
Beverley Chiodo BA(Hons), RGN is a Freelance Health Writer living in West Yorkshire.
Article accepted for publication September 2002.
November 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 11
Audit of community catheter care
Ian Pomfret describes an audit of community catheter care in a bid to assess workload pressures of a Lancashire rapid response team.
The RRT, Chorley & South Ribble PCT, Mrs. J. Scanlon, Manager RRT, Ms. S. Baxter, Clinical Governance & Audit Facilitator
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT, District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble Primary Care Trust. Article accepted for publication March 2002.
October 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 10
Physiotherapist’s role within the continence team
Joanne Whitehead describes the role of the physiotherapist as part of a continence team.
Joanne Whitehead GradDipPhys, MCSP, SRP is now a Clinical Specialist Physiotherapist/Continence at Burnley General Hospital, Lancashire.
Article accepted for publication October 2001.
September 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 9
Back to basics: an introduction to continence issues
Ian Pomfret provides an overview of continence issues.
Ian Pomfret SRN, NDN Cert, PWT, is a District Continence Adviser, Chorley & South Ribble NHS Trust. Article accepted for publication March 2002.
July 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 7
Continence awareness for people with a visual impairment
Cate Parker looks at the difficulties faced by visually impaired people with continence problems.
Cate Parker RGN, BA, PGCE, Project Development Worker, PromoCon.
Article accepted for publication August 2001.
June 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 6
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Francis Allison discusses the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel disease.
Francis Allison, BA, Dip N (Lond.), Cert.Ed. RGN, RMN, RNMH, RCNT, RNT, is a Freelance Health Writer (former Senior Lecturer in Primary Healthcare), Lancaster.
Article accepted for publication May 2001.
June 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 6
Use of the stages of change/transtheoretical model in promoting continence
Michael Hughes discusses the use of a client-centred model to promote continence
Michael Hughes RN, BSc (Hons), DipN, Cert HPM, MIHM, MRSH, SHEPS is an Independent Healthcare Training Consultant, London.
Article accepted for publication September 2001.
May 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 5
Digital rectal examination/manual removal of faeces in adults
Karen Irwin discusses the protocols surrounding the use of digital rectal examination and manual removal of faeces and offers a step by step guide to performing the procedure.
Karen Irwin BA (Hons) RGN, DN is a Clinical Nurse Specialist - Bowel Dysfunction within the Community Health Care Bolton NHS Trust.
Article accepted for publication May 2001.
April 2002 : Volume 16, Issue 4
The political aspects of continence: informing the public
Former director of the Continence Foundation David Pollock gives an overview of the political sensitivity of continence issues in Britain.
David Pollock was until February 2001 Director of the Continence Foundation, London.
Article accepted for publication June 2001.
December 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 12
Continence, health policy and older people
Sue Thomas discusses current policies that influence continence service provision for older people.
October 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 10
Urethral catheterisation - is gel needed?
Ian Pomfret discusses the use of anaesthetic gel in catheterisation.
October 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 10
Reconfiguration of a continence service
Ian Pomfret describes how a continence specialist, occupational therapist and physiotherapist are delivering a multidisciplinary and multi-skilled continence service to people living in a Lancashire health trust.
July 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 7
Continence products - top five requests
Helen White and Debra Evans give us the lowdown on the top five continence product requests.
June 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 6
Selecting the appropriate method of catheterisation
Ian Pomfret guides us thorugh the different types of catheterisation available.
April 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 4
Managing adult faecal incontinence
Karen Irwin discusses the sensitive management of faecal incontinence.
February 2001 : Volume 15, Issue 2
Removing catheters
John Robinson gives a brief overview of his ongoing research projects into whether patients complain of pain on removal of catheters.
December 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 12
Intermittent self-catheterisation
Hilary Duffin outlines the individual methods and advantages of clean intermittent catheterisation - a much underused technique in bladder control management
October 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 10
Catheter care case histories
Ian Pomfret describes three case histories of patients with catheter related problems and discusses how the community nurse may be able to meet the needs of these clients.
August 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 8
Promoting continence - a reflective account
Linda Davis reflects on an incident whereby a client with continence problems would not comply with treatment suggestions
June 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 6
Day-time wetting in school age children
June Rogers reviews the differing types of day-time wetting problems affecting children and discusses appropriate interventions and treatments.
April 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 4
Urinary continence management – penile sheaths
Ian Pomfret describes the correct use of penile sheath systems in the management of male urinary incontinence.
April 2000 : Volume 14, Issue 4
Assessing psychological well-being of incontinent patients
Gwenda Lewis describes the use of psychological assessment to ensure the well-being of incontinent patients.
September 1999 : Volume 13, Issue 9
Catheter care - trouble shooting
Ian Pomfret describes some of the more commonly experienced catheter problems and gives advice on tackling them.
June 1999 : Volume 13, Issue 6
The role of health promotion in childhood soiling
Jane Lucy describes the role of health promotion in the care of children who soil and their families.
April 1999 : Volume 13, Issue 4
Continence advisors to the rescue!
Dorothy Sneddon discusses the qualities needed to be a successful continence advisor.
February 1999 : Volume 13, Issue 2
Stress incontinence
Loraine Roberts describes some of the factors which can affect a client's ability or willingness to comply with treatment guidelines for stress incontinence.
December 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 12
Audit outcomes: standards for catheter care
Ian Pomfret discusses the findings of the latest audit outcomes with regard to standards for catheter care.
October 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 10
Continence and the community nurse
Michael Hughes defines incontinence and discusses its prevalence and service provision.
October 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 10
Realising the potential of urinals for women
Joan McIntosh describes the range of urinals for women available in the UK.
August 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 8
Promoting continence training for people with learning difficulties Part One
Linda Smith & Paul Smith review continence training approaches used in the treatment of people with learning disabilities.
June 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 6
Attitudes of health workers to incontinence
Claire Smith describes a small pilot study which questioned the attitudes of health workers towards incontinence.
April 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 4
Treating urinary incontinence using biofeedback and neuromuscular stimulation
Jeanette Haslam describes the differing types and uses of biofeedback and neuromuscular stimulation when treating incontinence.
February 1998 : Volume 12, Issue 2